Resources for Cacao Growers

Links to information pertinent to production and processing of cacao.

 -    Trade Groups
 -    Cacao Growing Basics
 -    Soil / Fertilization
 -    Diseases and Pests
 -    Processing Cacao
 -    Economics of Cacao / Business Issues
 -    Markets for Cacao
 -    Videos
 -    Miscellaneous

Trade Groups

East Hawaii Cacao Association
Hawaii Chocolate & Cacao Association
Kona Cacao Association
Hawaii Farm Bureau

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Cacao Growing Basics

Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Cacao - Good overview by Skip Bittenbender, Dan O'Doherty, et al.
Producing Cocoa in Northern Australia - Lots of information on myriad issues of cacao growing and processing
Growing Cocoa - Published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1970. Includes some processing info.
Training Manual for Improving Cocoa Production in Haiti - Sponsored by US Agency for International Development
Cocoa: Pruning - Applied Agricultural Resources in Malaysia and Indonesia
Cocoa Training Manual - Produced by CABI Bioscience, a basic resource with information about growing, pest & disease control
Vegetative Propagation of Cacao - Penn State book on tissue culture propagation. Why Penn State? Think Hershey.
Cacao Manual - Compiled and edited by Frederick Hardy, 1960. 397 pages readable on Google Books
Growing Cocoa - Includes information on climate, environment, and fertilization requirements; by Queensland Dept. of Ag & Fish

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Soil / Fertilization

Cocoa Fertilizer Requirements - Applied Agricultural Resources in Malaysia and Indonesia. Table 14 "Critical Level" is target level.
Soil Quality Test Kit Guide - USDA publication, info on how to test, understanding results, how to assemble a comprehensive test kit
CTAHR testing - soil / plants / feed
 -    Why and How to Take a Soil-Test Sample - CTAHR
 -    Price list for CTAHR tests
Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii Soils - CTAHR publication broken down by chapter
Soils of Hawaii - CTAHR publication with information on the ten soil types found in Hawaii
Role of Fertilizer - Good explanation of the basics of fertilizers and nutrients needed by growing plants
Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production ... - Organic farming is surprisingly harmful to environment

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Diseases and Pests

Integrated Management of Black Pod - Black Pod is in Hawaii. This study done in India compares treatment methods
Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens - Black Pod research done in Papua New Guinea
Impact of plant breeding on pod rot incidence - Study of whether cacao might be bred to resist black pod
Black Pod Rot of Cacao Caused by Phytophthora palmivora - CTAHR publication on black pod
ImmunoStrips - Kits may be purchased here to test for black pod
On-farm selection for quality and resistance to . . . pod rot - Another study of genetic resistance to black pod
Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot - The title describes it
Greenhouse Insect Management - Info on identifying and controlling insects in a greenhouse, by University of Kentucky
Little Fire Ant Products Available for Homeowner Use - CTAHR publication listing insecticides for use against fire ants
Hawaii Ant Lab Website - Information on controlling little fire ants, classes, and more
Management of Chinese Rose Beetles ... Feeding on Cacao ... Using Insecticides - New research by Skip Bittenbender
Pesticide Educational Resources Collaborative - Good starting place for info on pesticide safety and regulations

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Processing Cacao

Amano Chocolate blog - Among many informative articles are:
 -    Cocoa Fermentation
 -    Winnowing, a Key to Quality Chocolate
 -    Removing the Chaff, Winnowing Cocoa Beans
From cacao tree to bean: the beginning of fermentation - Information on methods and science of fermentation
The science of cacao fermentation 1: what happens during cacao fermentation? - The title describes the article
Quality of cocoa beans dried using a direct solar dryer at different loadings - Research paper
Changes in some biochemical qualities during drying of . . . cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans - Research paper
Secrets of Chocolate and Confectionary Coatings - Info on processing to produce finer chocolates
Making Chocolate From Scratch - Focused on small batch chocolate making. CTAHR pub by Skip Bittenbender & Erik Kling

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Economics of Cacao / Business Issues

Economics of Cacao Production in Kona - University of Hawaii CTAHR
Orchard Issues and Economics of Cacao Production in Kona - University of Hawaii CTAHR powerpoint program
Report to Expedite the Production and Delivery of Hawaii Cacao to the Marketplace - 2010 report by Hawaii Dept. of Ag
2015 Hawaii Cacao Survey - Results of survey conducted by CTAHR
Agritrade Cacao Articles - Links to articles pertinent to international cacao markets
Legal Guide for Direct Farm Marketing - Online book from Drake University Law School: information on legal issues affecting farms
Should Farmers Market Vendors Carry Product Liability Insurance? - Overview of product liability issues that may affect farms
FDA Food Labeling Guide - Essential information for designing food labels.
FDA Small Business Nutrition Labeling Exemption - Even if exempt, you may need to file with FDA
Hawai‘i Farmers Market and Agritourism Venues - Published by CTAHR, includes information on regulatory requirements
AgLease 101 Document Library - Forms for renting/leasing ag land, equipment, etc. Good starting points for drafting contracts
Rural Tax - Tax information for farmers, presented by Utah State University.

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Markets for Cacao

Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture, Market Development Branch
Bean to Bar Craft Chocolate Makers - listed by state

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Grafts, Rooted Cuttings and Air Layering of Cacao
Increase Cocoa Production, Part 1 - Jamaican television program, one of the more detailed video series presented in English
How to Grow Cacao - In Spanish
The Rise of Hawaii Grown Cacao
Tempering Chocolate - by Choklat in Calgary, Alberta
CTAHR Sustainable Ag channel - includes videos helpful to cacao growers

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Cocoa Research Centre - University of the West Indies
Hawaii Agritourism Assn. - Perhaps you want to profit by offering farm tours
Rural and Cooperative Business Development Services - The Kohala Center in Waimea has programs to help with business issues
Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness . . . - Study shows possible health benefits of cacao flavanol
Google Maps Area Calculator Tool - If you can find your property on Google maps you can easily determine your field size
Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii - An interactive map displaying average rainfall at locations across Hawaii, prepared by UH Manoa
What to look for and how to savor chocolate - A fairly good article from the Washington Post
Farm Tours Hawaii - If you offer tours of your farm or processing facility, promote your tour here with a free listing.

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